1658 – The 1st US police corps formed in New Amsterdam.
1812 – USS Constitution captures and destroys brig Adeona.
1817 – The Revenue Cutter Active captured the pirate ship Margaret in the Chesapeake Bay.
1863 – Confederate raider William Quantrill led a massacre of 150 men and boys in Lawrence, Kansas. Quantrill’s last ride.
1867 – President Andrew Johnson sparked a move to impeach him as he defied Congress by suspending Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton.
1898 – Hawaii was formally annexed to the United States.
1914 – Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary.
1918 – SECNAV approves acceptance of women as yeoman (F) in U.S. Navy.
1918 – The Secretary of the Navy authorized the enlistment of women into the Marine Corps Reserve.
1941 – The House passes an extension of the draft period from one year to thirty months (and a similar increase for service in the National Guard) after considerable debate. The bill is passed by one vote (203-202) in the House, so it would be incorrect to suggest that American political opinion is strongly in favor of a more aggressive international policy at this point.
1941 – Churchill and Roosevelt conclude their meeting at Placentia Bay. It is agreed to send strong warnings to the Japanese and it is understood the America will almost certainly enter the war if Japan attacks British or Dutch possessions in the East Indies or Malaysia. A message is also sent to Stalin, proposing a meeting in Moscow. The conference is most remembered for the agreement later called the Atlantic Charter. This is a statement of principles governing the policies of Britain and the USA and states that all countries have the right to hold free elections and to be free from foreign pressure. The conference also gives British and American staffs an opportunity to get to know each other and to work together.
1942 – Strong American forces are landed on Espiritu Santu to build a supply base for the Guadalcanal campaign.
1942 – USS Cleveland (CL-55) demonstrates effectiveness of radio-proximity fuze (VT-fuze) against aircraft by successfully destroying 3 drones with proximity bursts fired by her five inch guns.
1944 – The first PLUTO (Pipe Line Under The Ocean) becomes operational carrying fuel from the Isle of Wight to Cherbourg.
1944 – The US 15th Corps (part of US 3rd Army) captures Alencon and advances to the outskirts of Argentan where the German 116th Panzer Division is located.
1944 – Italian based American bombers attack the Bordeaux-Merignac airfield and then fly on to Britain.
1944 – Elements of US 5th Army complete the capture of Florence.
1944 – LT Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., USNR, the older brother of John F. Kennedy, was killed with his co-pilot in a mid-air explosion after taking off from England in a PB4Y from Special Attack Unit One (SAU-1). Following manual takeoff, they were supposed to parachute out over the English Channel while the radio-controlled explosive filled drone proceeded to attack a German V-2 missile-launching site. Possible causes include faulty wiring or FM signals from a nearby transmitter.
1945 – The Chinese-American headquarters cancels the operations against Fort Bayard, Hong Kong and Canton, in light of the imminent capitulation of Japan.
1945 – Over Japan, B-29 Superfortress bombers continue attacks on targets.
1945 – The battleship USS Pennsylvania is damaged by an attack from a Japanese torpedo bomber off the island of Okinawa. Meanwhile, A Japanese submarine sinks the American destroyer Thomas F. Nickel and the landing craft Oak Hill.
1950 – The U.S. Army’s 5th Regimental Combat Team and the 25th Infantry Division’s 35th Infantry Regiment joined forces east of Chinju to continue the Task Force Kean counteroffensive that pushed the North Koreans back 20 miles.
1951 – Charles E. Brady Jr., USN Commander, astronaut, was born in, Pinehurst, NC.
1952 – For three days a reinforced rifle company of the 1st Marine Division on Hill 122 (Bunker Hill) fought off repeated enemy assaults, up to battalion size in strength.
1953 – The Soviet Union conducted a secret test of its first hydrogen bomb.
1957 – In first test of Automatic Carrier Landing System, LCDR Don Walker is landed on USS Antietam.
1958 – USS Nautilus (SSN-571) arrives Portland, England completing first submerged under ice cruise from Pacific to Atlantic Oceans.
1959 – The 1st ship firing of a Polaris missile was from Observation Island.
1960 – USAF Major Robert M White takes X-15 to 41,600 m.
1960 – The first balloon satellite, the Echo 1, was launched by the US from Cape Canaveral, Fla. It bounced phone calls from JPL in California to the Bell Labs in New Jersey.
1969 – Viet Cong forces launch a new offensive with attacks on 150 cities, towns, and bases, including Da Nang and Hue. The heaviest attacks were aimed at the area adjacent to the Cambodian border northwest of Saigon; an estimated 2,000 Communists attacked Tay Ninh, Quan Loi, Loc Ninh, and An Loc. Further north, North Vietnamese commandos fought their way into the U.S. First Marine Division headquarters in Da Nang. They were eventually driven out by the Marines, who killed 40 Communist soldiers, sustaining five killed and 23 wounded in the process.
1972 – As the last U.S. ground troops left Vietnam, B-52′s made their largest strike of the war.
1976 – The orbiter Enterprise made its 1st approach and lands test (ALT).
1977 – High Energy Astronomy Observatory 1 was launched into Earth orbit.
1977 – The space shuttle Enterprise passed its first solo flight test by taking off atop a Boeing 747, separating and then touching down in California’s Mojave Desert.
1981 – President Reagan, citing alleged Libyan involvement in terrorism, ordered U.S. jets to attack targets in Libya.
1981 – IBM introduces the PC and PC-DOS version 1.0. The computer had shrunk from being a room-clogging behemoth to a relatively dainty machine that could fit on desks in homes and schools. So, IBM’s introduction of its Personal Computer (PC) on August 12, 1981, didn’t exactly signal a technical revolution. But that didnýt stop Big Blue’s PC from bursting onto the scene. Their new product sold 136,000 units in its first year and a half of release, propelling the company’s stock on an upward climb that peaked later in the decade. IBM had seemingly served notice to the computer industry: the granddaddy of business computing was making a break from the boardroom and looking to conquer America’s homes. Not as widely noticed was the fact that IBM’s new machine was a pastiche of other company’s components, including a processing chip courtesy of Intel and an operating system developed by a thirty-two person concern called Microsoft.
1982 – Coast Guard vessels escorted the nation’s first Trident submarine, the USS Ohio, into its home port at Naval Submarine Base Bangor, providing security for the sub’s transit. Coast Guard units guided the sub past a Soviet spy ship and 400 anti-nuclear protesters.
1990 – Air Force Staff Sergeant John Campisi of West Covina, California, died after being hit by a military truck in Saudi Arabia, becoming the first US casualty of the Persian Gulf crisis.
1990 – Iraqi President Saddam Hussein sought to tie any withdrawal of his troops from Kuwait to an Israeli withdrawal from the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip.
1993 – The launch of space shuttle Discovery was scrubbed at the last second.
1994 – “Team Coast Guard” was created. Commandant, ADM Robert Kramek, approved recommendations that integrated the reserves into the operation missions and administrative processes of the regular Coast Guard, effectively eliminating the differences between the two service components.
1998 – A Lockheed Martin Titan 4A rocket exploded after takeoff at Cape Canaveral. The $300 million rocket carried a spy satellite for the Air Force valued at $800 to $1 billion. The explosion was blamed on a momentary loss of power.
2000 – British and US bombers struck southern Iraq for a 2nd day.
2002 – Iraq’s information minister, Mohammed Saeed al-Sahhaf told the Arabic satellite television station Al-Jazeera that there was no need for U.N. weapons inspectors to return to Baghdad. He branded as a “lie” allegations that Saddam Hussein still had weapons of mass destruction.
2003 – The FBI arrested Hemant Lakhani, an Indian-born British arms dealer, in a sting operation in New Jersey and foiled a contrived plot aimed at smuggling a shoulder-fired missile for some $80,000 to US-based terrorists. It involved cooperation between the intelligence services of the US and Russia.
2003 – At least 20 combatants died in a gunbattle between suspected Taliban fighters and Afghan government soldiers.
2003 – El Salvador sent 360 peacekeepers to Iraq.
2003 – Capture in Southeast Asia of top al Qaeda leader and suspected planner of Indonesia bombings, Riduan Isamuddin, aka Hambali.
2004 – In Najaf thousands of U.S. and Iraqi soldiers launched a major assault on militiamen loyal to a radical Shiite cleric al-Sadr.
2004 – The U.N. Security Council unanimously approved a resolution extending the U.N. mission in Iraq for a year.
2004 – Pakistan authorities said they had arrested five more suspected members of Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaida network in the past 48 hours.